This page compares the XXX model to the BerlinModel

Basic Information

Short Description / Purpose



Notes on a comparison between Berlin Model tables and attributes and the TDWG Taxon Name LSID Ontology

(names only, not including nom. types)

BM.Name.Cultivar name, BM.Name.CultivarGroupName

Data Property: TaxonName -> cultivarNameGroup covers various kinds of epithets; cultivar name, cultivar group name and the special case of the latter, grex. This is all right, but inconsistent with the separation of species and infrageneric epithets


Not found in the ontology.

BM.NameFact, BM.NameFactCategory

not there as such, but partly covered by Nomenclatural Note

BM.NomStatus, BM.NomStatusRel,

not there as such, but partly covered by Nomenclatural Note

BM.RelName, BM.RelNameQualifier

not there as such, but partly covered by Nomenclatural Note


BM “Non-atomized addition to a name (e.g. for an ‘unnamed name’: species A or for names including historical ranks)”. Not covered by the Name Ontology (perhaps considered a property of a taxon?

BM Hybrid and graft chimaeras

Are entirely treated under concepts in the ontology. However:

  • Named hybrids (nothotaxa) must also be treated in the Name part, since they are governed by the code.

  • Marking of a name as hybrid results in either the multiplication sign before the names monomial part, or before the species epithet, or by prefixing the name element indicating the rank by ‘notho’ or ‘n-‘. (ICBN Art. H3.1.)

  • Parentage can be considered a nomenclatural fact, because the ICBN prescribes knowledge of at least one parent.

On the other hand, for synonymy and homonymy, ‘notho’, ‘n-‘ and the multiplication sign are disregarded acc. to the ICBN.

ON.Nomenclatural Note
  • It’s not clear why Basionym is not treated as other ‘has annotations’ and ‘nomenclatural notes’.

  • Term ‘based on’ covers Ex author citations together with validations in the ontology. A name with an ex-author is depicted by the relation of the name without ex author to a name with the ex author as the only reference. However, in contrast to a validation, where a name has (invalidly) been published, in the case of ex-authors the name is inexistent and the consequence is the introduction of a massive amount of nomina nuda in the database.

  • Term later homonym of: The definition is wrong: “Current or subject name has the same spelling as target name but was published later and has priority over it (unless conserved or sanctioned). See ICBN: Article 53, ICZN: Chapter 12, Article 52.”

The construct in the ontology is a strong simplification of several elements in the Berlin Model:

  • In contrast to NameFact/NameFactCategory, there is no possibility to assign a reference to a Nomenclatural Note, no doubtful or publish flags are present, and the addition of a controlled vocabulary of fact categories is not possible.

  • In contrast to NomStatus/NomStatusRel, there is no controlled vocabulary for nomenclatural stati (the term publication status covers only validity), and no source reference, doubt, or notes can be assigned.

  • Although RelName/RelNameQualifier is covered in principle by Nomenclatural Notes, the implementation differs in that

ON.PersonNameAlias ratifiedBy property

This is referenced in the explanation but I can’t find it

ON Class TeamMember, property role

“The members role within the team e.g. Combination Author or Basionym Author.” Doesn’t this prevent the re-use of a Team if the roles are different (even in one and the same publications, new taxa may be named and new combinations made; across publications, the same team may take all roles).

Some general points for discussion

  • The hybrid problem belongs to an entire class of problems where nomenclature and taxonomy are not clearly separated, or where taxonomic data are regularly used as part of names. I posit that only those things that are governed by the codes should be included in the name class (e.g. nothotaxa), not other concatenations (such as ‘emend.’ citations,

  • Where will things like mechanism to protect cache fields, and created/updated fields end up in the model?

  • Is the BM separation of relations between names, stati assigned to names, and facts assigned to names a good one?









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