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Web annotation of taxon-level data - Results of Training Hackathon for Checklist Cross-mapping and Precursor National Checklists Generation from GBIF-mediated data

Andrea Kohlbecker (leader), Ruud Altenburg, Oskar Kindvall, David Remsen

Sources of biodiversity occurrence data, such as catalogued and indexed by GBIF, may serve as a means to both verify or extend the list of taxa found in national species checklists. They might also serve as the means to start a de-novo national species list. Team 2 focused on a system design that could be used to present assertions of a taxon occurrence within a country - to a presumed expert curator, who might then use their knowledge to assess the assertion and determine whether the taxon should or should not be added to the list. The authoritative Catalogue of Life record - linked through the cross-mapping efforts of Team 1, would then form the record-of-authority for the national list. In addition, negative matches (i.e, species asserted to occur within the country but determined to not belong there - might be linked to a comment or annotation that could serve to inform future users of the GBIF network to the nature of the suspect occurrence. This led to the articulation of the following user story.

User Story 2-1

As an owner of a national checklist I want to load my checklist into a system and compare it to the list of taxa assigned to my country within the GBIF index. Matches missing from my national list may 1) represent legitimate missing taxa that should be candidates to add to my list. They may also 2) represent taxa erroneously applied to my country that should be annotated with their suspect status for future users of the record.

Goals

  1. Can the federated GBIF portal be used to support the identification and qualification of novel species occurrence records in the development of national or regional species inventories?
  2. Can annotation interfaces be used, in combination with authoritative regional or national species lists, to identify and annotate potentially erroneous species occurrences and thus inform future users of GBIF-mobilized data as to this erroneous assessment?

System Design

Team 2 came up with the following solutions for each step in the workflow described in Figure 2 below.

Figure​ ​2​ ​-​ ​Workflow​ ​describing​ ​the​ ​steps​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​enable​ ​comparison​ ​between​ ​a​ ​national​ ​checklist​ ​and the​ ​taxa​ ​represented​ ​by​ ​GBIF​ ​occurrence​ ​data.

Figure​ ​2​.​ ​Workflow​ ​describing​ ​the​ ​steps​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​enable​ ​comparison​ ​between​ ​a​ ​national​ ​checklist​ ​and the​ ​taxa​ ​represented​ ​by​ ​GBIF​ ​occurrence​ ​data.

1) GBIF. The term taxonKey appeared to be a more solid choice.

2) To retrieve the list of taxa represented by occurrence data, the team used SQL distinct selection on speciesKey, scientificName, genus; specificEpithet, infraspecificEpithet. This list was stored in the database (n = 43 387).

3) Cross-matching the checklist with the Catalogue of Life

4) Filtering out the negative matches (the taxa missing from the original national list)

A table was created where all taxa represented by GBIF data was inserted. This table included the following columns: taxonKey, AnnosSysUri, scientificName, blacklisted (bool), taxonStatusGBIF, existsInChecklist, checklistStatus (native, introduced etc), occurrenceRecordCount. The fields existsInChecklist, checklistStatus were updated from the Checklist table. Extraction of the potentially missing taxa was then made by selecting which taxa in the table existsInChecklist is false.

5) Annotate the missing taxa.

a. The team used AnnoSys (https://annosys.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/) to store annotations to the taxon occurrence records. AnnoSys was originally intended to annotate biodiversity occurrence records in ABCD; an XML format. The team extended an Annotation class of AnnoSys so it could handle information about a taxon (as opposed to a taxon occurrence). The team further developed a new annotation model, which is also based on the W3C Open Annotation Data Model (http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/). General techical documentation and documentation of the open annotation model as used by AnnoSys can be found at http://wiki.bgbm.org/annosys/index.php?title=TechnicalDocumentation
The purpose of the annotation in this case was to express that the distribution for the taxon might, or might not, be correct. In order to express the latter, a interim RDF term (http://rs.gbif.org/terms/ao#ImplausibleDistribution) was introduced.

b. The validation information is then supposed to be posted into AnnoSys using its REST API. We suggest that the annotation should be related to the URL representing the taxon page of GBIF i.e. http://www.gbif.org/species/taxonKey.The annotation should be expressed in a way that should be interpreted as: for the taxon with the taxonKey, all occurrences reported for the specified Country where the establishmentMeans do not clearly indicate non natural occurrence, should be considered as being expected errors.

Figure​ ​3​ ​Example​ ​PUT​ ​request​​ ​to​ ​the​ ​AnnoSys​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​new​ ​taxon​ ​annotation

Figure​ ​3​ ​Example​ ​PUT​ ​request​​ ​to​ ​the​ ​AnnoSys​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​new​ ​taxon​ ​annotation

6) Filter​ ​out​ ​legitimate​ ​missing​ ​species​ ​candidates​ ​for​ ​addition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​national​ ​list.

The​ ​resulting​ ​GUI​ ​is​ ​shown​ ​below.​ ​It​ ​supports​ ​annotation​ ​of​ ​all​ ​listed​ ​taxa​ ​which​ ​according​ ​to​ ​GBIF
occurrence​ ​data​ ​is​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​candidates​ ​to​ ​add​ ​on​ ​to​ ​the​ ​existing​ ​national​ ​checklist.​ ​For​ ​each​ ​row​ ​a
taxon-specific​ ​link​ ​to​ ​the​ ​distribution​ ​map​ ​generated​ ​by​ ​GBIF​ ​is​ ​provided​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​help​ ​the​ ​user​ ​evaluate
the​ ​underlying​ ​data​ ​and​ ​judge​ ​whether​ ​or​ ​not​ ​the​ ​taxon​ ​is​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​exist​ ​in​ ​the​ ​country.

To​ ​annotate​ ​a​ ​taxon​ ​the​ ​user​ ​has​ ​to​ ​use​ ​the​ ​checkbox.​ ​When​ ​checked,​ ​a​ ​taxon-specific​ ​annotation​ ​is
posted​ ​at​ ​the​ ​AnnoSys​ ​repository.​ ​When​ ​this​ ​is​ ​done​ ​the​ ​application​ ​posts​ ​the​ ​response​ ​with​ ​the​ ​URL​ ​to
the​ ​new​ ​annotation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​system​ ​database​ ​table.

Figure​ ​4.​ ​Screen​ ​shot​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Annotation​ ​GUI​ ​with​ ​the​ ​list​ ​taxa​ ​potentially​ ​missing​ ​in​ ​the​ ​checklist​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Netherlands.

Figure​ 4.​ ​Screen​ ​shot​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Annotation​ ​GUI​ ​with​ ​the​ ​list​ ​taxa​ ​potentially​ ​missing​ ​in​ ​the​ ​checklist​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Netherlands.

Recommendations

As​ ​a​ ​result​ ​of​ ​the​ ​explorations​ ​the​ ​team​ ​identified​ ​an​ ​additional​ ​user​ ​story​ ​worthy​ ​of​ ​further​ ​elaboration:

User​ ​story​ ​2-2

As​ ​a​ ​curator​ ​of​ ​GBIF​ ​data​ ​and​ ​harvest​ ​processes,​ ​I​ ​want​ ​to​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​look​ ​up​ ​annotations
indicating​ ​that​ ​imports​ ​of​ ​occurrence​ ​data​ ​with​ ​a​ ​specified​ ​combination​ ​Country​ ​and​ ​Taxon​ ​may
be​ ​incorrect​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​handle​ ​these​ ​records​ ​in​ ​an​ ​appropriate​ ​way​ ​(e.g.,​ ​records​ ​of​ ​lions
occurring​ ​within​ ​the​ ​Netherlands​ ​and​ ​not​ ​indicating​ ​zoo​ ​specimens).​ ​They​ ​may​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​more
accurate​ ​assessment​ ​of​ ​species​ ​composition​ ​within​ ​countries.

Suggested​ ​improvements​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​services

In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​make​ ​it​ ​more​ ​feasible​ ​to​ ​implement​ ​a​ ​system​ ​supporting​ ​the​ ​User​ ​Story​ ​investigated​ ​here,​ ​we
can​ ​recognize​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​at​ ​least​ ​two​ ​major​ ​improvements​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​web​ ​services.

  1. GBIF​ ​occurrence​ ​service: A​ ​method​ ​that​ ​can​ ​utilize​ ​the​ ​same​ ​set​ ​of​ ​input​ ​parameters​ ​for​ ​querying​ ​occurrence​ ​data as​ ​the​ ​existing​ ​that​ ​delivers​ ​the​ ​result​ ​as​ ​a​ ​list​ ​of​ ​represented​ ​(observed)​ ​taxa​ ​with​ ​all relevant​ ​DwC​ ​terms​ ​plus​ ​the​ ​various​ ​GBIF​ ​taxonKeys.​ ​Relevant​ ​could​ ​be​ ​adding​ ​a column​ ​for​ ​number​ ​of​ ​occurrence​ ​records​ ​per​ ​taxon​ ​listed.
  2. AnnoSys​ ​API: Adding​ ​functionality​ ​that​ ​supports​ ​a​ ​more​ ​generic​ ​solution​ ​for​ ​annotations​ ​of​ ​information.

Improvements​ ​of​ ​the​ ​preliminary​ ​solution

The​ ​list​ ​of​ ​potential​ ​missing​ ​taxa​ ​was​ ​very​ ​long​ ​(about​ ​30​ ​000​ ​records).​ ​This​ ​may​ ​partially​ ​be​ ​explained​ ​by
the​ ​type​ ​of​ ​matching:​ ​full​ ​scientific​ ​names​ ​including​ ​authorship​ ​were​ ​used.​ ​Any​ ​spelling​ ​variations​ ​in​ ​the
names​ ​of​ ​authors​ ​would​ ​result​ ​in​ ​non-matching​ ​names.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​the​ ​GBIF​ ​data​ ​was​ ​not​ ​tested​ ​for
semi-invalid​ ​data,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​missing​ ​lat/lon​ ​data​ ​(which​ ​can​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​verify​ ​the​ ​location),​ ​and​ ​an​ ​incorrect
country​ ​label​ ​(data​ ​provided​ ​in​ ​the​ ​GBIF​ ​DwCA​ ​file).​ ​After​ ​extensive​ ​pruning,​ ​some​ ​values​ ​can​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to
score​ ​taxa:​ ​basisOfRecord,​ ​establishmentMeans,​ ​type​ ​specimen,​ ​number​ ​of​ ​occurrences​ ​etc.​ ​The
resulting​ ​list​ ​could​ ​be​ ​ordered​ ​by​ ​this​ ​score.

A​ ​link​ ​to​ ​the​ ​taxon​ ​page​ ​at​ ​GBIF​ ​would​ ​be​ ​useful​ ​in​ ​the​ ​interactive​ ​interface​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​support​ ​evaluation
of​ ​the​ ​taxon​ ​likelihood​ ​of​ ​actually​ ​being​ ​missed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​checklist.​ ​That​ ​could​ ​be​ ​if​ ​the​ ​overall​ ​distribution
pattern​ ​for​ ​that​ ​taxon​ ​suggest​ ​that​ ​the​ ​natural​ ​distribution​ ​do​ ​not​ ​include​ ​the​ ​target​ ​country.

Demo​ ​version:​http://134.213.149.111/group_2/ (link broken)

Figure2.png View - Figure​ ​2​ ​-​ ​Workflow​ ​describing​ ​the​ ​steps​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​enable​ ​comparison​ ​between​ ​a​ ​national​ ​checklist​ ​and the​ ​taxa​ ​represented​ ​by​ ​GBIF​ ​occurrence​ ​data. (197 KB) Andreas Kohlbecker, 06/27/2018 08:57 AM

Figure​3​.png View - Figure​ ​3​ ​Example​ ​PUT​ ​request​​ ​to​ ​the​ ​AnnoSys​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​new​ ​taxon​ ​annotation (285 KB) Andreas Kohlbecker, 06/27/2018 09:05 AM

Figure4.png View - Figure​ ​4.​ ​Screen​ ​shot​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Annotation​ ​GUI​ ​with​ ​the​ ​list​ ​taxa​ ​potentially​ ​missing​ ​in​ ​the​ ​checklist​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Netherlands. (328 KB) Andreas Kohlbecker, 06/27/2018 09:07 AM

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