Debian Linux Installation Guide¶
Core System Installation¶
A network connection provided, downloading and booting Debian's Netinst CD should be the quickest way to get a running core Debian system. For that, deselect any possible selections like e.g. desktop or standard during the software selection part of Debian's netinst installation procedure.
Ask your network administrator for network configuration details. An automatic networking configuration requires a running DHCP system. Otherwise, the following information will be requested during the installation procedure:
You can do this during the installation procedure, or change your network configuration later.
For the time being, only the user root should be added to the system. Therefore, just cancel the corresponding dialog during the installation procedure prompting you to enter the first user's name.
Next, ensure the source list of Debian's package manager apt includes the following statements:
deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/ etch main contrib non-free deb-src http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/ etch main contrib non-free deb http://security.debian.org/ etch/updates main contrib non-free deb-src http://security.debian.org/ etch/updates main contrib non-free
You can do this during the installation procedure, or later by editing the file /etc/apt/sources.list
Anyway, after the first system boot, you should update your Debian system by running the following commands as root:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade
Ask your network administrator for network configuration details.
The network configuration file is /etc/network/interfaces. Furthermore, you must run the following command to restart your host with the current network configuration:
Automatic networking configuration requires a running DHCP system.
For static networking, you will need to request the following information from your network administrator:
Important note (Debian Etch only): The standard etch setup configures ethernet network interfaces (eth0, eth1) using the option allow-hotplug eth0*. This causes many problems concerning networking (e.g. deletion of the eth0 interface when restarting networking # /etc/init.d/networking restart. So, please use the option *auto instead in /etc/network/interfaces.
This is an adequate network configuration file for DHCP managed networks.
# The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp
This is a general network configuration file template for BGBM external network servers:
# The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 160.45.63.xx netmask 255.255.255.0 network 220.127.116.11 broadcast 18.104.22.168 gateway 22.214.171.124 # dns-* options are implemented by the resolvconf package, if installed dns-nameservers 126.96.36.199 dns-search bgbm.fu-berlin.
Basic System Configuration¶
Consider to prepare your system with the following useful software packages
| less | Text pager |
| unzip, zip | For .zip files |
| lvm2 | Logical Volume Manager |
| ssh | OpenSSH client and server |
| ntpdate | NTP client (network time sync) |
| psmisc | process related utilities (killall) |
Use the apt-get command to install these packages
apt-get install less unzip zip lvm2 ssh ntpdate psmisc
Follow the instructions below to get a basic configuration for some of these software packages
The openssh server has been configured to accept logins via openssh keys only. So, no username/password access should be possible on this system. Therefore, the following options must be set in the openssh-server configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows:
PasswordAuthentication no UsePAM no
The public keys of users enabled to login as root must be stated in the file_/root/.ssh/authorized_key_.
Note (For Xen virtual machines only): Since the system time is set by the host machine, you don't need to setup or configure NTP !
Using ntpdate-debian is the most comfortable method to update the network time of a host. Just edit /etc/default/ntpdate and set NTPDATE_USE_NTP_CONF=no. This enables the time servers listed in NTPSERVERS for time sync.
Note (For host located at FU-Berlin): Add the time server of the FU-Berlin (time.fu-berlin.de). Others may be blocked by the firewall of FU-ZEDAT !
NTPDATE_USE_NTP_CONF=no NTPSERVERS="time.fu-berlin.de 0.debian.pool.ntp.org 1.debian.pool.ntp.org 2.debian.pool.ntp.org 3.debian.pool.ntp.org"
Of course, you would like to sync the system time using ntpdate-debian regularly (e.g. hourly). For that, you can use cron by simply writing a script to run or creating a symbolic link to the ntpdate-debian executable within e.g. /etc/cron.hourly/.
ln -s /usr/sbin/ntpdate-debian /etc/cron.hourly/